Syllabus for Geology and Geophysics (GG)
Part A: Common to Geology and Geophysics
Planetary system, size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth;
atmosphere and greenhouse effect; isostasy; elements of seismology; physical
properties of the interior of the earth; continents and continental processes;
physical oceanography; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, continental drift, plate
soil formation; action of river, wind, glacier and ocean; earthquakes, volcanism
and orogeny. Basic structural geology, mineralogy and petrology. Geological
time scale and geochronology; stratigraphic principles; major stratigraphic
divisions of India. Engineering properties of rocks and soils. Ground water
geology. Geological and geographical distribution of ore, coal and petroleum
resources of India.
Introduction to remote sensing. Physical basis and applications of gravity,
magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic and radiometric prospecting for
oil, mineral and ground water; introductory well logging.
Part B - Section 1: Geology
symmetry, forms, twinning; crystal chemistry; optical mineralogy,
classification of minerals, diagnostic physical and optical properties of rock
rocks - classification, forms and textures, magmatic differentiation; phase
diagrams and trace elements as monitors of magma evolutionary processes; mantle
melting models and derivation and primary magmas. Metamorphism; controlling
factors, metamorphic facies, grade and basic types; metamorphism of pelitic,
mafic and impure carbonate rocks; role of fluids in metamorphism; metamorphic
P-T-t paths and their tectonic significance; Igneous and metamorphic provinces
of India; structure and petrology of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary processes
and environments, sedimentary facies, basin analysis; association of igneous,
sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with tectonic setting.
strain and material response; brittle and ductile deformation; primary and
secondary structures; geometry and genesis of folds, faults, joints,
unconformities; cleavage, schistosity and lineation; methods of projection,
tectonites and their significance; shear zone; superposed folding; basement
classification and geological significance of important invertebrates,
vertebrates, microfossils and palaeoflora; stratigraphic principles and Indian
processes and agents; development and evolution of landforms; slope and
drainage; processes on deep oceanic and near-shore regions; quantitative and
Ore mineralogy and optical properties of ore minerals; ore forming processes
vis-à-vis ore-rock association (magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary and
metamorphogenic ores); ores and metamorphism; fluid inclusions as an ore
genetic tool; prospecting and exploration of economic minerals; sampling, ore
reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining methods. Coal and petroleum geology;
origin and distribution of mineral and fuel deposits in India; marine geology
and ocean resources; ore dressing and mineral economics.
abundance; meteorites; geochemical evolution of the earth; geochemical cycles;
distribution of major, minor and trace elements; elements of geochemical
thermodynamics, isotope geochemistry; geochemistry of waters including solution
equilibria and water rock interaction.
properties of rocks and soils; rocks as construction materials; role of geology
in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels and
excavation sites; natural hazards. Ground water geology - exploration, well
hydraulics and water quality. Basic principles of remote sensing - energy
sources and radiation principles, atmospheric absorption, interaction of energy
with earth's surface, air-photo interpretation, multispectral remote sensing in
visible, infrared, thermal IR and microwave regions, digital processing of
satellite images. GIS - basic concepts, raster and vector mode operation.
Part B - Section 2: Geophysics
as a planet; different motions of the earth; gravity field of the earth,
Clairaut's theorem, size and shape of earth; geochronology; seismology and
interior of the earth; variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature,
electrical and magnetic properties of the earth; earthquakes-causes and
measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms, earthquake
quantification, source characteristics, seismotectonics and seismic hazards;
digital seismographs, geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism; oceanic and continental
lithosphere; plate tectonics; heat flow; upper and lower atmospheric phenomena.
vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell and Helmholtz equations for solution
of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and
spherical polar coordinates; Green's theorem; Image theory; integral equations
in potential theory; Eikonal equation and Ray theory. Basic concepts of forward
and inverse problems of geophysics, Ill-posedness of inverse problems.
'G' and 'g' units of measurement, absolute and relative gravity measurements; Land,
airborne, shipborne and bore-hole gravity surveys; various corrections in
gravity data reduction - free air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies; density
estimates of rocks; regional and residual gravity separation; principle of
equivalent stratum; upward and downward continuation; wavelength filtering;
preparation and analysis of gravity maps; gravity anomalies and their
interpretation - anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth
rules, calculation of mass.
Earth's magnetic field - elements, origin and units of measurement, magnetic
susceptibility of rocks and measurements, magnetometers, Land, airborne and
marine magnetic surveys, corrections, preparation of magnetic maps, upward and
downward continuation, magnetic anomalies-geometrical shaped bodies, depth
estimates, Image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps;
Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data.
Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, non-metals,
rock forming minerals and different rocks, concepts of D.C. resistivity
measurement, various electrode configurations for resistivity sounding and
profiling, application of filter theory, Type-curves over multi-layered
structures, Dar-Zarrouck parameters, reduction of layers, coefficient of
anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity field data, equivalence and
suppression, self potential and its origin, field measurement, Induced
polarization, time and frequency domain IP measurements; interpretation and
applications of IP, ground-water exploration, environmental and engineering
Basic concept of EM induction, Origin of electromagnetic field, elliptic polarization,
methods of measurement for different source-receiver configuration, components
in EM measurements. Skin-depth, interpretation and applications; earth's
natural electromagnetic field, tellurics, magneto-tellurics; geomagnetic depth
sounding principles, electromagnetic profiling, methods of measurement,
processing of data and interpretation. Geological applications including
groundwater, mining and hydrocarbon exploration.
Seismic methods of prospecting; Elastic properties of earth materials; Reflection,
refraction and CDP surveys; land and marine seismic sources, generation and
propagation of elastic waves, velocity - depth models, geophones, hydrophones,
recording instruments (DFS), digital formats, field layouts, seismic noises and
noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot
and geophone arrays, 2D and 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and
interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering, dip-moveout, static and
dynamic corrections, Digital seismic data processing, seismic deconvolution and
migration methods, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic
stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO. Reservoir geophysics.
Geophysical signal processing, sampling theorem, aliasing, Nyquist frequency, Fourier
series, periodic waveform, Fourier and Hilbert transform, Z-transform and
wavelet transform; power spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, cross
correlation, convolution, deconvolution, principles of digital filters, windows,
poles and zeros.
Principles and techniques of geophysical well-logging. SP, resistivity, induction, gamma
ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic,
cement bond logging, micro-logs. Quantitative evaluation of formations from
well logs; well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for
groundwater study; application of bore hole geophysics in ground water, mineral
and oil exploration.
Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of minerals (radioactive and non
radioactive) deposits, half-life, decay constant, radioactive equilibrium, G M
counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor devices, application of
radiometric for exploration and radioactive waste disposal.
Geophysical inverse problems; non-uniqueness and stability of solutions; quasi-linear and
non-linear methods including Tikhonov's regularization method, Backus-Gilbert
method, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms and artificial neural network.
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