Syllabus for Botany (XL: Section J)
Systems of classification (non-phylogenetic vs. phylogenetic - outline), plant
groups, molecular systematics.
Plant cell structure, organization, organelles, cytoskeleton, cell wall and
membranes; anatomy of root, stem and leaves, meristems, vascular system, their
ontogeny, structure and functions, secondary growth in plants and stellar
Morphogenesis & Development:
Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm, pollination,
fertilization, embryogenesis, seed formation, seed storage proteins, seed
dormancy and germination.
Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; organogenesis and somatic
embryogenesis, artificial seed, somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in
plant cell culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.
Physiology and Biochemistry:
Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress physiology,
stomatal physiology, signal transduction, N2 metabolism,
photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration, Flowering: photoperiodism and
vernalization, biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering; molecular mechanism
of senencensce and aging, biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological
effects of plant growth regulators, structure and function of biomolecules,
(proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.
Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping;
extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization,
regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations
(numerical and structural), transposons.
Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification:
Principles, methods - selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility,
genetic maps and molecular markers, sporophytic and gametophytic self
incompability, haploidy, triploidy, somatic cell hybridization, marker-assisted
selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid
transformation, transgenic plants and their application in agriculture,
molecular pharming, plantibodies.
A general account of economically and medicinally important
plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils,
rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae,
fungi, lichen and bacteria.
Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of
important crops caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, and their control
measures, mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection of
pathogens; plant-microbe beneficial interactions.
Ecology and Environment:
Ecosystems - types, dynamics, degradation, ecological succession; food chains and energy flow;
vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming, speciation and
extinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation, phytoremediation.
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